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Значение диеты в жизни ЛЮДЕЙ с ВИЧ

Значение диеты в жизни ЛЮДЕЙ с ВИЧ

Большинство пациентов, начавших прием первой схемы АРТ содержащей ингибиторы протеазы рано или поздно сталкиваются с нарушение липидного профиля

Большинство пациентов, начавших прием первой схемы АРТ содержащей ингибиторы протеазы (Реатаз, Калерта, Вирасепт, Телзир, Норвир) или ненуклеозидные ингибиторы обратной транскрептазы (Вирамун, Стокрин/Сустива, Интеленс), рано или поздно сталкиваются с проблемой дислипидемии (нарушение липидного профиля, который проявляется повышением концентраций липопротеидов низкой и очень низкой плотности, общего холестерина и снижением уровня липопротеидов высокой плотности, что в дальнейшем ведет к прогрессированию атеросклероза и сердечно-сосуистых заболеваний).

В связи с этим врачи настоятельно рекомендуют пациентам прием статинов — препаратов, снижающих уровень липопротеидов низкой плотности и препятствующих отложению «плохого» холестерина в стенках сосудов (Внимание!!! Только по предписанию врача). Однако между статинами и антиретровирусными препаратами существует проблема взаимодействий, что существенно усложняет подбор эффективных схем.

Подробно о менеджменте побочных эффектов связанных с проблемах липодистрофии, липоатрофии, липогипертрофии

Исследователи из Бразилии провели исследование, в котором ВИЧ-положительные пациенты до начала приема антиретровирусных препаратов придерживались строгой диеты, заключающейся в употреблении продуктов с низким содержанием насыщенных и транс-жиров, с высоким содержанием мононенасыщенных и полиненасыщенных жиров, волокон. По прошествии одного года доля пациентов в исследуемой группе, у которых появилась дислипидемия, составила 21%, в то время как в контрольной групп - 68%. Ученые отмечают, что стабилизация липидного профиля длилась в течение последующих 12 месяцев.

Справка: что такое транс-жиры?

Для придания более стабильного состояния, через растительное масло (например, хлопковое) пропускаются пузырьки водорода, что увеличивает срок хранения и самого масла, и продуктов, производимых на его основе. Один из самых распространённых примеров - маргарин.

К сожалению, в процессе такой обработки в масле происходят химические реакции, и образуются так называемые транс-жиры. Не смотря на то, что они присутствуют в небольшом количестве и в натуральной пище, в обработанном масле их в десятки раз больше.

Чем опасны транс-жиры?

Согласно последним научным данным, употребление транс-жиров приводит к нарушению метаболизма, отрицательно влияет на обменные процессы жиров в организме, что с большой долей вероятности приводит к изменению обмена инсулина и ожирению.

Кроме того, исследования Harvard School of Public Health показывают, что употребление даже небольшого количества транс-жиров (2% от общего потребления калорий) довольно быстро приводит к развитию ишемической болезни сердца.

Сколько транс-жиров в маргарине?

Маргарин был первым продуктом, полученным на основе технологии пропускания водорода (гидрогенизации), благодаря чему жидкое растительное масло становится твердым. Производить его начала компания Procter&Gamble в 1911 году.

Как упоминалось, маргарин содержит большое количество транс-жиров: мягкий маргарин - 0,1−17%, маргарин для выпечки - 20−40%, спред - 1,5−6%. Кроме того, всегда действует правило - чем тверже маргарин, тем больше в нем транс-жиров и наоборот.

Опасная доза маргарина

Значение диеты в жизни ЛЮДЕЙ с ВИЧ

Учитывая исследования о вреде транс-жиров в количестве более 2% от дневной калорийности, получается, что доза больше 4 г. таких жиров в сутки опасна для здоровья. В пересчете на маргарин это примерно 8−10 граммов - столовая ложка. Делайте выводы сами.

Но помните, что пищевые технологии не стоят на месте, и то, что продается под названием «масло» вполне может содержать большое количество гидрогенизированного жира и являться, по сути, маргарином. Будьте аккуратны при покупке любых твердых жиров.

Продукты, содержащие транс-жиры

Транс-жиры содержатся в картофельных чипсах, магазинной выпечке и печенье, замороженной пицце и других продуктах быстрого питания. При чем, их доля может достигать 30−50%, так как многие из них готовятся с использованием гидрогенизированных жиров.

Например, средняя порция картофеля фри содержит 14 г транс-жиров, жареная курица KFC — 7 г., маленькая пачка чипсов - 3 г., порция сухого завтрака - 2 г. Напомню, что доза выше 4 г. в сутки доказано опасна для здоровья человека.

Опасность транс-жиров для мужчин

Кроме того, что транс-жиры негативно влияют на метаболизм, усиливают отложение подкожного жира и приводят к ожирению, доказано, что употребление таких жиров в пищу приводит к снижению мужского полового гормона тестостерон

Выводы исследования

Доктор Джеймс Штейн считает, что «приверженность правильному питанию (употребления большого количества клетчатки, ограничение калорийности) не только улучшает самочувствие ВИЧ положительных пациентов, но и позволяет отложить необходимость приема статинов». Прочесть подробно о здоровом питании вы сможете в статье Как одурачить ВИЧ с помощью здорового питания

По материалам: theheart.org и fitseven.ru

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