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Первые диагностированные случаи ВИЧ-инфекции

Первые диагностированные случаи ВИЧ-инфекции

Первые сообщения о вспышке редкой формы пневмонии среди 5 молодых гомосексуальных мужчин в Лос-Анжелесе были опубликованы 5 июня 1981 года

Первые сообщения о вспышке редкой формы пневмонии среди 5 молодых гомосексуальных мужчин в Лос-Анжелесе были опубликованы 5 июня 1981 года в Еженедельном Вестнике по заболеваемости и смертности (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. June 5 1981), издаваемым Центром по контролю за заболеваемостью (CDC). В начале 80-х годов, Д-р Джим Каррэн (Dr Jim Curran) осуществлял обзор статей перед их публикацией и был назначен в то время главой комиссии по расследованию этих случаев. В статье подробно описывалось, какое лечение получали 5 мужчин-геев в возрасте 29−36 лет по поводу пневмонии, вызванной pneumocystis carinii, редкой формы инфекции легких, в период с октября 1980 по май 1981 года.

У 5 мужчин также диагностировалась инфекция, вызванная цитомегаловирусом (ЦМВ), формой герпеса, которая безвредна для большинства людей, однако с того момента проблематичная для людей с ВИЧ, поскольку они не в состоянии от нее избавиться. К моменту публикации статьи 2-е мужчин уже умерли.

«Появление пневмоцистоза у этих пяти до недавнего времени здоровых людей без клинически явного базисного иммунодефицита - необычно», — сообщалось в статье. «Тот факт, что все пациенты были гомосексуалами, позволяет предположить наличие ассоциации между некоторыми аспектами гомосексуального стиля жизни или заболеванием, приобретенным через половой контакт, и пневмоцистной пневмонией в этой группе населения».

В статье также сообщалось о том, что у всех пятерых мужчин либо была текущая инфекция, вызванная цитомегаловирусом, либо у них были симптомы того, что заболевание было в предыдущие месяцы. В другом исследовании, опубликованном ранее в том же году, сообщается, что у гомосексуальных мужчин выявлены высокие показатели заболеваемости ЦМВ, что не было зафиксировано среди гетеросексуальных мужчин того же возраста.

В другом исследовании было показало, что ЦМВ был обнаружен в сперме у мужчин, чьи анализы мочи на вирус были отрицательны.

Статья завершается следующим выводом: «Вышеописанные наблюдения подразумевают вероятность дисфункции иммунных клеток, связанной с общим контактом, который предрасполагает людей к оппортунистическим инфекциям».

Первые диагностированные случаи ВИЧ-инфекции

Сообщение, опубликованное молодым доктором Майклом С. Готтлибом, иммунологом из Калифорнийского Университета, вначале прошло незамеченным медицинским сообществом, поскольку врачи редко читают вестник. Лишь спустя месяц, после того как в Еженедельном Вестнике по заболеваемости и смертности от 4 июля появилось статья о 26-и случаях редкой формы злокачественной опухоли - Саркомы Капоши, которые были диагностированы среди мужчин-гомосексуалов за последние 30 месяцев (20 в Нью-Йорке и 6 в Калифорнии), СМИ начинают уделять внимание проблеме. Через несколько месяцев Д-р Готтлиб опубликовал статью в Медицинском Журнале Новой Англии (Gottlieb MS. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: Evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency. New England Journal of Medicine 1981; 305:1425−1431) и привлек еще большее внимание к новому медицинскому феномену.

Источник:

  1. Health reporter, BBC News: news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/health/5 041 928.stm
  2. Elizabeth Fee and Theodore M. Brown. Michael S. Gottlieb and the Identification of AIDS. American Journal of Public Health June 2006, Vol 96, No. 6, 982−983

Перевод: Юрий Саранков

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