Секс и здоровье

Курение сигарет — дополнительная нагрузка организма при ВИЧ-инфекции

Курение сигарет – дополнительная нагрузка организма при ВИЧ-инфекции

Многие побочные эффекты курения ухудшаются при наличии ВИЧ. Курение повышает риск сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний, в том числе инфаркта и инсульта. Некоторые антиретровирусные препараты повышают уровень жиров и холестерина в крови, что также увеличивает риск этих проблем

Если вы ВИЧ-положительный, и вы курите сигареты, то ваш организм испытывает дополнительную нагрузку. Курение ослабляет иммунную систему, в результате чего повышается риск таких инфекций как грибковая «молочница» во рту, оральная волосистая лейкоплакия (вызывается вирусом Эпштейна-Барра), а также различные виды пневмонии.

Никотин - химическое вещество в табаке, которое и вызывает зависимость. Но помимо никотина в каждой сигарете содержится до 4 800 вредных веществ, в том числе 11 веществ, которые, согласно научным исследованиям, вызывают рак у людей.

Вещества в сигаретах включают:

— ацетон, как в средстве для удаления лака;

— аммиак, как в токсичных средствах для уборки в доме;

— формальдегид, как то, чем бальзамируют тела;

— мышьяк, опасный яд, которым травят крыс;

— деготь, который используется при прокладке дорог;

— моноксид углерода, ядовитый угарный газ;

— кадмий, очень ядовитый тяжелый метал.

Последствия курения

Многие побочные эффекты курения ухудшаются при наличии ВИЧ. Курение повышает риск сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний, в том числе инфаркта и инсульта. Некоторые антиретровирусные препараты повышают уровень жиров и холестерина в крови, что также увеличивает риск этих проблем.

У людей с ВИЧ могут появляться язвочки и инфекции полости рта, например, «молочница» (оральный кандидоз) или высыпания герпеса на губах и ротовой полости. Курение способствует таким заболеваниям, повышает риск стоматологических проблем, воспаления десен и рака в полости рта.

Кроме того, курящие люди с ВИЧ заболевают раком легких, эмфиземой, пневмонией и другими легочными заболеваниями чаще, чем курильщики, у которых нет ВИЧ. Наконец, курение ослабляет иммунную систему и уменьшает эффективность ваших антиретровирусных препаратов.

Мужчины и курение

Мужчины, практикующие секс с мужчинами, курят сигареты гораздо чаще, чем их гетеросексуальные ровесники. В США 55,9% МСМ курят сигареты. Причины такого распространения курения различны, в том числе:

Курение сигарет – дополнительная нагрузка организма при ВИЧ-инфекции

— самолечение тревожности, связанной с гомофобией и дискриминацией;

— злоупотребление алкоголем и другое поведение, связанное с курением;

— социальные нормы в отношении курения в гей-клубах и других специализированных заведениях;

— прямая реклама табачных компаний в гей-сообществе.

Советы для бросающих курить

Отказ от курения имеет множество выгод с точки зрения здоровья. Уже через двенадцать часов без курения уровень моноксида углерода в организме снижается до нормального. Через год без курения ваш риск сердечных заболеваний станет в два раза меньше, чем у курильщика. Через пять лет без курения ваш риск инсульта станет таким же, как и у человека, который никогда не курил. Так как же это сделать?

— Выделите конкретную дату для того, чтобы бросить курить. Избавьтесь от всех табачных изделий и всего, что связано с курением, заблаговременно. Сообщите всем членам семьи и друзьям, когда вы начинаете бросать курить, попросите не курить в вашем присутствии и не приглашать вас курить.

— Обратитесь за помощью. Попробуйте обратиться за психологическим консультированием по отказу от курения, а также попросите вашего врача назначить вам заместительные препараты с никотином.

— Как можно больше двигайтесь. После отказа от курения поддерживайте максимальную активность - занимайтесь спортом, делайте генеральную уборку.

— Поддерживайте здоровый образ жизни. Пейте как можно больше воды и старайтесь отказываться от нездоровых привычек, которые связаны с вашим желанием закурить.

— Если поначалу у вас ничего не получится… Даже если вы сорветесь, не оставляйте попыток. Просто проанализируйте ситуацию и постарайтесь понять, что конкретно заставило вас снова взяться за сигарету. Теперь начинайте все снова, только на этот раз избегайте аналогичной ситуации. Не сдавайтесь, пытайтесь снова, это того стоит!

hivplusmag.com

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