Жизнь с ВИЧ, Профилактика, Секс и здоровье

Вакцина от вируса папилломы человека (ВПЧ) поможет избегать людям с ВИЧ рака

Вакцина от вируса папилломы человека (ВПЧ) поможет избегать людям с ВИЧ рака

Вирус папилломы человека (ВПЧ) — часто встречающийся вирус. Некоторые штаммы (типы) вируса ассоциируются с возникновением генитальных бородавок (кондилом), в то время как другие вызывают структурные изменениями клеток, которые без лечения могут привести к возникновению некоторых видов рака.

Исследование, опубликованное на сайте aidsmap.com показывает, что риск инфицирования ВИЧ повышается среди мужчин с папилломавирусной инфекцией полового члена. Еще до этого было установлено, что наличие ВПЧ-инфекции повышает риск ВИЧ инфицирования среди женщин, что позволило предположить наличие такого же риска заражения ВИЧ среди мужчин с анальной формой ВПЧ-инфекции. Хотя результаты нового исследования показывают, что риск инфицирования ВИЧ увеличивается также среди мужчин с папилломавирусной инфекцией полового члена, из чего следует повышенный риск ВИЧ среди мужчин-геев (хотя анальная форма ВПЧ наблюдается также у мужчин гетеросексуальной ориентации).

В течение 30-и месячного периода наблюдения, проводимого в рамках рандомизированного контролируемого исследования по добровольной циркумцизии среди мужчин в районом центре Кении - Кисуму, у 61 человек (2,4%) была установлена ВИЧ инфекция.

Папилломавирусная инфекция половых органов присутствовала у 61% исследуемых, у которых наблюдалась сероконверсия к ВИЧ. После внесения поправки с целью исключения других потенциальных факторов риска, было выявлено, что наличие папилломавирусной инфекции, независимо от типа вируса, повышала риск инфицирования ВИЧ на 71%, а при инфекции высоко-канцерогенными штаммами ВПЧ этот риск повышался на 92%, хотя этот показатель и не являлся статистически значимым. Среди участников, инфицированных тремя и более штаммами ВПЧ, риск инфицирования ВИЧ был в три раза выше по сравнению с лицами без папилломавирусной инфекции.

Согласно мнению исследователей, вакцинация против ВПЧ возможно не приведёт к значительным изменениям ситуации в этой специфической группе населения. Папилломавирусная инфекция, вызванная типами 16 и 18, ассоциируемых с несколькими видами рака, и против которых существует лицензированная вакцина, встречалась относительно редко в рамках этого исследования; в большинстве случаев участники были инфицированы другими типами ВПЧ, против которых вакцина не обладает защитным действием.

Между тем, по результатам другого исследования было выявлено, что поддержка вирусной нагрузки на уровне ниже 50 копий/мл и числа CD4 лимфоцитов выше 350 клеток/мм3 является защитным фактором против инфицирования высоко-канцерогенными типами ВПЧ.

Вакцина от вируса папилломы человека (ВПЧ) поможет избегать людям с ВИЧ рака

Комментарий: Несмотря на то, что исследователи утверждают, что ВПЧ 16 и 18 типов является наиболее часто-встречающейся, вирулентной и высоко-канцерогенной инфекцией, в рамках исследования эти типы вируса встречались редко. Вакцина Gardasil (Гардасил), используемая в настоящее время в Великобритании, также защищает от ВПЧ типа 6 и 11, которые ассоциируются с возникновением генитальных кондилом. Результаты этого исследования подкрепляют доказательство того, что более широкое использование ВПЧ вакцины может быть полезной как в качестве метода профилактики ВИЧ для представителей групп риска, так и для ВИЧ-инфицированных лиц обоих полов с целью защиты этих пациентов от некоторых видов рака.

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150 Comments

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